BIOGRAPHY

Solo Exhibitions and Projects (selection)

2019

NILS-UDO Photographies et peintures. Centre d’art contemporain de la Matmut, Saint-Pierre-de-Varengeville, France

LA BARCA. Earth, grass, marble, tree plantings, Val di Sella, Arte Sella, Italy 2019-2020

NILS-UDO Nouvelles peintures et photographies. Galerie Pierre-Alain Challier, Paris

BLACK BAMBOO. Black marble, white marble gravel, bamboo canes, Fondation EDF, Paris

2018

La Couveé. Marble, earth, forest, Île de Porquerolle, France, Fondation Carmignac

Wood Window, Entrance, Fern Painting, etc., Installations, Camp, Pyrénées

Volcano. Earth, grass, hornbeam, volcanic rock, marble, Château de Chaumont-sur-Loire, France

Vallée. Centre d’art contemporain de la Matmut, Saint-Pierre-de-Varengeville, France

NILS-UDO Nids. Photographies et peintures, Galerie Claire Gastaud, Clermont-Ferrand

NILS-UDO Maitre du LandArt et de l’art daus la nature. Photographs and paintings, Hôtel Potocki, Paris

2017

NILS-UDO Nouvelles Peintures et photographies. Galerie Pierre-Alain Challier, Paris

Au-dessus de la rivière. Planting installation, De Nature en Sculpture, Fondation Villa Datris, L’Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, France

NILS-UDO Neue Malerei. Galerie Karin Wimmer, Munich

NILS-UDO Peintures et photographies. Maison Triolet-Aragon, Saint-Arnoult-en-Yvelines

Sella Nest II. Planting installation, Val di Sella, Italy

Insect. Bad Reichenhall, Upper Bavaria, Germany

2016

Moorlicht. Maple leaves, Upper Bavaria, Germany

Andechs Molkerei. Project drafts for the Andechser Molkerei, Bavaria, Germany

Clearing. “Point of View” Park of Pena, Sintra, Portugal

NILS-UDO Photographies et Peintures, Art Paris, Galerie Claire Gastaud

NILS-UDO Paintings. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO Nouvelles photographies, Galerie Photo et contemporanea, Turin, Italy

2015

La Mousse. Project incorporating a World War One bunker, Forest in the Vosges Mountains near Hirzenstein, Fondation Francois Schneider,
Wattwiller, France

Sanctuaire. Planting installation, Abbaye de Jumièges, Normandy

Vaux-le-Vicomte. Project plans for the Domaine de Vaux-le-Vicomte, France

NILS-UDO 4 éléments – Eau, Air, Terre, Feu. Fondation Francois Schneider, Wattwiller

NILS-UDO “Sur l’eau”. Île Sainte Marguerite, Ville de Cannes

2014      

Arbre Fromager. Biennale Dak’art, Dakar, Senegal

NILS-UDO Nouvelles Peintures et Photographies. Galerie Pierre-Alain Challlier, Paris

Awarding of the Ordre Chevalier des Arts et Lettres, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Paris

2013

NILS-UDO. Galerie Claire Gastaud, Clermont-Ferrand

NILS-UDO Radeau d’automne. Musée de la Vallée de la Creuse, Eguzon

2012

Temple. Planting installation, Hommage au Facteur Cheval, Hauterives

Radeau d’Automne. Vallée de la Creuse, Eguzon, France, State commission (CNAP)

Tabernakel. Altana Museum, Bad Homburg

Sequoia Piece. Van Dusen Botanical Garden, Vancouver

NILS-UDO Photographies. Hommage au Facteur Cheval, Hauterives

NILS-UDO Photographies et Peintures. Cempredon Centre d’Art, L’Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, France

2011

Entrée. Planting installation, Ferme de Chosal, Copponex

NILS-UDO Nature. Musée de la Poste, Paris

NILS-UDO. Galerie Pierre-Alain Challier, Paris

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO. Maison des Arts, Thonon les Bains

2010

Burgenland. Landschaftspark Hoheward, Herten, Ruhr

Pampas. Pampas grass and ash rods. Normandy

Autel d’eau. Palace garden Domaine de Méréville, France

Samsara-Nid. Roussillon, France

NILS-UDO. Galerie Claire Gastaud, Clermont-Ferrand

NILS-UDO. Galerie Pierre-Alain Challier, Paris

NILS-UDO Peintures. Château de Méréville

2009

Éruption d’Été. Ash, hazel, willow, meadowsweet, Upper Bavaria

Gulliver’s Forest. Château du Domaine de Chaumont-sur-Loire

NILS-UDO Art in Nature. Photographs and New Paintings. Ersel, Turin

NILS-UDO Nouvelle Peinture. Musée de la Vallée de la Creuse, Eguzon

NILS-UDO Photographies. Château du Domaine de Chaumont-sur-Loire

2008

Towards Nature. Royal Botanical Gardens of Hamilton, Canada

Sella Nest. Spruce trunks, white marble, Arte Sella, Valle di Sella, Italy

Towards the River. Stura River, Italy

Gulliver’s Forest. Sackville, Canada

NILS-UDO Nouvelles Peintures. Galerie Pierre-Alain Challier, Paris

NILS-UDO Photographies. Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Aurillac

NILS-UDO Art Paris, Galerie Claire Gastaud

2007

Galicia. Workshop in the coastal cliffs, Galicia, Spain

NILS-UDO Neue Malerei. Kunsthaus Alte Mühle, Schmallenberg

NILS-UDO. Städtische Galerie Bad Berleburg

NILS-UDO. Galerie Claire Gastaud, Clermont-Ferrand

2006

NILS-UDO. Circolo de Bellas Artes, Madrid

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO. Arco Madrid

2005

Clemson Clay-Nest. Spruce trunks, clay, bamboo, Botanical Garden of South Carolina, University of Clemson

Manglas. Mangrove project, Maracaibo, Venezuela

Das Nest. BUGA Horticultural Show, Munich

NILS-UDO. Maison des Arts, Malakoff

NILS-UDO. Photo + Contemporary, Turin

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO. Galerie Alain Gutharc, Paris

2004

Gesang der Geister über den Wassern. Wilhelmsdorf, Germany

Landscape with Waterfall. Foto Fest, Houston, Texas, USA

Takamaka. Series of installations on La Réunion, Indian Ocean

NILS-UDO Photographies. Musées de Châteauroux

NILS-UDO Photographies. CEAAC Strasbourg

NILS-UDO. LAC Île de la Réunion

2003

Connemara. Series of installations in the Connemara region, Galway Arts Festival, Galway, Ireland

Geomantie-Topographie. Bayerisches Polizeiverwaltungsamt Straubing, Germany

Pre-Cambian Sanctuary. Mont Tremblant, Centre d’Art contamporain du Québec, Montreal, Canada

Ivry Habitat. Hôpital Charles Foix, Ivry, France

NILS-UDO Painting. Icomtri internationali d’Arte, Borgo, Italy

NILS-UDO. Galway Arts Festival, Galway, Ireland

NILS-UDO. Artcurial, Paris

NILS-UDO. Kunstgalerie Fürth

NILS-UDO. Galerie Alain Gutharc, Paris

NILS-UDO. Galerie Claire Gastaud, Clermont-Ferrand

2002

Lanzarote Project. Installations for the Fundación César Manrique, Lanzarote, Canary Islands

Morioka Spider. Iwate Museum of Art, Morioka, Japan

Entrée. Planting installation, Université de Moncton, Canada

Habitat. “Human Traces” Art Trail Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, Germany

NILS-UDO Fotografien. Ganserhaus, Wasserburg am Inn

NILS-UDO. Gunma Museum of Art, Tatebayashi, Japan

NILS-UDO. Iwate Museum of Art, Morioka, Japan

NILS-UDO. Obihiro Museum of Art, Hokkaido, Japan

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

2001

Water Nest. Realization in a moor lake, Upper Bavaria

Stein-Zeit-Mensch. Spruce logs, 150 ton quartzite monolith, Wood Sculpture Path Wittgenstein-Sauerland, Bad Berleburg

Bois Bleu. Maglione, Italy

NILS-UDO. Fundación César Manrique, Lanzarote

NILS-UDO. Galerie Photo + Contemporanea, Turin

NILS-UDO. DeLeon White Gallery, Toronto

NILS-UDO. Galerie Alain Gutharc, Paris

2000

Habitat. Earth, maple tree, willow withies, grass, Jardins des Champs Élysées, Paris

Blue 2000. Series of installations with the color blue, Forêt de Marchiennes, Vallery, France

Auvergne. Workshop, Series of installations, Lycée agricole de Brioude-Bonnefort, Centre du paysage de Lavoûte-Chilhac,
École supérieure des Beaux-arts de la Ville de Clemont-Ferrand

Namibia Project. Installations in the deserts of Namibia

NILS-UDO. Musée Zadkine, Paris

NILS-UDO. Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Geneva

NILS-UDO. Gallerie d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Bergamo

NILS-UDO. University of Bayreuth

NILS-UDO. Städtische Galerie Rosenheim

NILS-UDO. Galerie Bezirk Oberbayern, Munich

NILS-UDO. CEAAC Strasbourg

NILS-UDO. Espace André Malraux, Colmar

NILS-UDO. FRAC Séléstat

NILS-UDO. Galerie Alain Gutharc, Paris

1999

Barranco del Infierno. Installation for the Mariposa project, Tenerife

Aachen Workshop, Installations in a park in the city of Aachen

La Belle au Bois dormant. Jardin des plantes, Paris

Project drafts for the Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald

Halbiertes Robinienblatt. University of Bayreuth

NILS-UDO. Ludwig Forum für internationale Kunst, Aachen

NILS-UDO. Galerie Photo + Contemporanea, Turin

NILS-UDO. Galerie Krief, Paris

NILS-UDO. Galeries Contemporaines de l’ancien Collège des Jésuites, Reims

NILS-UDO. Centre d’Art contemporain, Vassivière en Limousin

NILS-UDO. DeLeon White Gallery, Toronto

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO Photographies. Atelier 340, Bruxelles

NILS-UDO Fotografien. Galerie Dorow, Berlin

1998

Red Rock Nest. Red Rock canyon, California

Entrée. Bamboo installation. LAC Lieu d’art contemporain. ÎÎde la Réunion, Indian Ocean

NILS-UDO. Espace Peiresc, Toulon

NILS-UDO. DeLeon White Gallery, Toronto

NILS-UDO. Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Geneva

1997

Landschaft aus Deutschland. Project draft for the Spreebogen, Berlin

Dornröschen’s Rosengarten. Project draft for the Spreebogen, Berlin

Fichtennadeln auf Tümpel. Hazel stakes, peeled, Upper Bavaria

Herbstbild. Maple leaves, hazel stakes, peeled, Upper Bavaria

Naturarchitekturskulptur, Troisdorf, Germany

1996

Die Blaue Blume. “Landschaft für Heinrich von Ofterdingen”, Schweisfurth-Stiftung, Glonn near Munich

Das Haus. Project draft for EXPO 2000 Hannover, Germany

Winter Nest. Snowballs colored with wild berry juice, Upper Bavaria

Across the River. Installations for the Peter Gabriel film “Across the River” for the World Wild Life Fund for Nature “The Living Planet”, Vancouver Island, Canada

Root Sculpture, Toronto

NILS-UDO. DeLeon White Gallery, Toronto

1995

Peter Gabriel Project. Series of Installations for Peter Gabriel’s CD-ROM EVE in Box, England

Root Sculpture. Parque Chapultepec, Mexico City

Trees Covered in Snow. Upper Bavaria

NILS-UDO Photographs. Centro de la imagen, Mexico City

NILS-UDO. Galerie Claire Buruss, Paris

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO. Max Mueller Bahvan, Bombay

1994

Parc de la Courneuve. Series of Installations in the Parc de la Courneuve, Saint-Denis

Tausend Narzissen. Planting of 1000 daffodils on a floating island, Rügen, Baltic Sea

New Delhi Project. Installation with marigold chains in the city’s public spaces, Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi

Le Mais. Planting of 15 varieties of corn, including the first cultivated maize from Mexico, Laàs, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France

Installations in Nature. Fujino, Japan

Nid de Frêne. Château de Baieuill, France

Installations in Nature. Université de Valenciennes, FRAC Lille

NILS-UDO. Kunsthalle O. Palme, Budapest

1993

Landscape with Pond (Swamp). Open pit mine near Cottbus, Germany

La Vallée de la Fleur Bleue. Parc du Château de Lagrézette, Cahors

Dietenbronn Project. Winter installations in the Dietenbronn region

Donauried Project. Series of installations in Donauried, Germany

TICKON. Installations for TICKON Art in Trasnekaer palace gardens, Island of Langeland, Denmark

NILS-UDO. City Gallery, Poznan, Poland

1992

Dietenbronn Project. Summer installations in the Dietenbronn region

Sella Project. Installations in the Valle di Sella, Borgo, Italy

Hain. Romantische Landschaft“. Planting installation. Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen

Landscape with Waterfall. Atelier 340, Bruxelles

Installation à la Défense, EPAD Paris

1991

Central Park Project. Installations in Central Park. Public Art Fund. New York.

Martinique Project. Series of installations on Martinique. DRAC, Caribbean

Kornblumenstab. Cornflower Rod. Upper Bavaria

NILS-UDO. Gasteig, Munich

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO. Théatre de l’Agora, Evry

NILS-UDO. Nouveau Théatre, Angers

1990

Late snowfall on a mountain meadow. Bird’s eye primrose, Austrian Alps

La Réunion Project. Series of Installations, Île de la Réunion, Indian Ocean

Le roi des Aulnes. Planting installation, Embouchure de l’Orne, Amiens

Ouessant. Installation on the island of Ouessant, Brest, France

La Réunion à Paris“. Grant from the Ministry of Culture, Paris

1989

Memorial. Cenotaph with dead trees from Munich, Gasteig Munich

Walking in Trees. Former zoo of the city of Turin

Project Plans for the Highway Rest Stops, Autoroute du Nord, France

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO. Lothringer Strasse, City of Munich

1988

Nid de Lavande. Rocks, oak branches and lavender plantings, Fondation Stahly, Crestet, Vaison-la-Romaine

Coastal Cliffs rubbed with Leaves, island of Cres, Croatia

Bamboo Nest. Planting installation, Fujino, Japan

Croix. Dead trees from the forest of Fontainebleau, La Villette, Paris

1987

Bamboo Habitat. Bamboo installation, University of Coimbra, Portugal

Tel Hai Project. Series of installations in the region of Tel Hai, Israel

Deux Saisons Project. Series of installations in the winter in Vassivière en Limousin

To Hiroshige. Tamagawa Takashimaya Shopping Center, Tokyo

NILS-UDO Photographs. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO Photographs. University of Coimbra

1986

Sylt Project. Series of installations on the island of Sylt, North Sea, Germany

Deux Saisons. Series of installations in the summer in Vassivière en Limousin

Sites Strasbourg. Heather planting in an old oak tree, Parc de l’Orangerie, Strasbourg

NILS-UDO Photographs. Rupertinum Salzburg

NILS-UDO. Centre d’Art Contemporain de Montebéliard

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

NILS-UDO. Musée Fabre, Montpellier

1985

13 Dead Elms, 4 Dead Pines. Bar-le-Duc, France

Récoltes. Series of installations in Équevilley, Centre d’art contemporain de Montbéliard, France

NILS-UDO. Galerie Claire Beruss, Paris

NILS-UDO. Kaneko Art, Tokyo

1984

La Forêt volante. Planting installation. Parc de la Tête d’Or, Lyon

The Path. Grass planting on spruce trunks. Frans Hals Museum, Haarlem, The Netherlands

NILS-UDO Photographies. Maison de Lyon

1983

Poplar Tower. Nordhorn, Germany

Rain Tower. Spruce trunks, red oak poles, hazel stakes, clematis, Kunstverein Freiburg

NILS-UDO Photographs. Städtische Galerie Nordhorn

1982

Grand Water Altar. Palace gardens of Schlosspark Pommersfelden, Germany

Mountain Forest. Old grass in spruce trees, Altausee, Austria

Water House. Spruce trunks, birch twigs, willow withies, North Sea, the Wadden Sea

The Tower. Bentheim sandstone, Nordhorn, Germany

Kunstfonds grant, Bonn

NILS-UDO Photographs. The Palace of Schloss Pommersfelden

1981

Mountain Wind. Larch poles, sycamore fronds, Austrian Alps

March Altar. Ash poles with cattails, Upper Bavaria

Snow Water. Ash poles, willow withies, snowballs, on a forest lake, Upper Bavaria

Snow Fire. Fire in snow sculpture. Bavarian Alps

NILS-UDO Photographs. Kunsthalle Nuremberg

1980

Water House. Birch trunks, spruce trunks, willow withies, pool, Deutscher Künstlerbund Hannover

May Raft. Ash, hazel, clematis, dandelion, on a forest lake, Upper Bavaria

Tabernacle. Ash poles, willow withies, clematis, snow, UPper Bavaria

Portal. Ash poles, hazel, willow, birch twigs, Upper Bavaria

River Altar. Ash, hazel, clematis, dandelion, Upper Bavaria

Rannen. Project draft for the Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald, Germany

First Prize for Color Photography at the Triennale internationale de la photgraphie, Fribourg, Switzerland

1979

Sun Sculpture for the Equinox. Black Forest Peak, Kunstverein Freiburg, Germany

In the Garden of Eden. Spruce trunks, rock, ulex stems, Bad Münster a. Stein Ebernburg, Germany

Raft. Ash poles, wild cherry blossoms, forest lake, Upper Bavaria

Garden of Eden. Birch planting, Upper Bavaria

Wind Raft. Ash, spruce, rock and clematis on a lake, Upper Bavaria

NILS-UDO Photographs. Galerie Falazik, Neuenkirchen, Germany

1978

Nest. Earth, rock, grass, Galerie Falazik, Neuenkirchen, Germany

Fallen spruce, Maple leaves, Upper Bavaria

1977

Two Seasons. Black-and-white photographs

1976

Water Nest. Pond, reeds, Upper Bavaria

Winter Altar. Snow installation, Upper Bavaria

Earth, Spruce, Grass. Spruce planting, Upper Bavaria

1975

Hunger Meadow. Birch planting, Upper Bavaria

For Gustav Mahler. Poplar planting, Upper Bavaria

Rosimboden. Rock installation over a stream. Italian Alps

Willow Circle. Planting, Upper Bavaria

1974

Tower. Ash poles. Spruce branches, Bavarian Forest, Germany

Fern Raft. Floating fern planting on moor lake, Upper Bavaria

Island Tower. Reed installation, Paros, Greece

1973

Hommage à Gustav Mahler. Installation, planting with poplar, grass, ash, hazel and clematis, Upper Bavaria

Easter Meadow. Planting with poplar, larch and shrubbery, Upper Bavaria

Morning. Planting with poplar, shrubbery and grass, Upper Bavaria

My May Meadow. Installation, planting with poplar, shrubbery, ask poles and clematis, Upper Bavaria

Reed Tower. Tahiti beach, Mediterranean Sea, France

1972

Installation – Planting in a mountain gorge Bavarian Alps

Publications (selection)

NILS-UDO with contributions by Jean-Marc Barroso, Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy, Bernard Chauveau Édition, Paris 2019

NILS-UDO, Sur L`eau with contributions by John K.Grande, Katja Riedner, Marie-Lucie Veran, Éditions Actes Sud, Mairie de Cannes 2015

Les 4 éleménts de Nils-Udo with contributions by Auguste Vonville, Gottfried Knapp, Nils-Udo, Éditions Saint-Louis, Fondation Francois Schneider, Wattwiller 2015

NILS-UDO, de l`art dans les paysages du Massif central with contributions by Bernard Vasseur, Éditions page centrale, Clermont-Ferrand 2013

NILS-UDO, Wayfarer in Nature and Art with contributions by Uwe Rüth, Nils-Udo Wienand Verlag, Köln 2013

NILS-UDO, Nature  with contributions by Mauricette Feuillas, Josette Rasle, Benoît Decron, L`Adresse Musée de la Poste, Beaux-arts de Paris, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Paris 2011

NILS-UDO, L`Art dans la Nature  Photographies et Peintures, with contributions by Hubert Besacier, Nils-Udo, Flammarion, Paris 2011

NILS-UDO with contributions by Bernard Vasseur, Éditions Cercle d`Art, Paris 2010

NILS-UDO, Photographies  with contributions by Chantal Colleu-Dumont, Château du Domaine de Chaumont-sur-Loire, Courcuff Grandenigo Montreuil 2009

NILS-UDO, Art in Nature  Photographies et Nouvelle Peinture, mit einem Beitrag von Nicola Davide Angerame, Ersel, Torino, Italien 2009

NILS-UDO, huellas en la naturaleza  Die Erfahrung der Natur, mit Beiträgen von Seve Penelas, Nils-Udo, Uwe Rüth, Liliana Albertazzi, Circulo de Bellas Artes, Madrid 2005

NILS-UDO, NaturKunstNatur with contributions by Hubert Besacier, Nils-Udo, Éditions Flammarion, Paris 2005

NILS-UDO, Nids with contributions by Dieter Ronte, Elmar Zorn, Nils-Udo, Kunstgalerie  Fürth, Arte Sella, Borgo Valsugana, Musées de Chateauroux, Couvent des Cordeliers, Éditions Cercle d`Art, Paris, 2003

NILS-UDO muir mas, nem nglas talam cé…the beautiful sea, the blue heaven, the present earth, with contributions by Fidelma Mullane, Connemara, Galway arts center, Galway arts festival, Irland 2003

NILS-UDO, Towards Nature  Installation Cronicle, Gunma Museum of Art, Tatebayashi, Hokkaido, Obihiro Museum of Art, Iwate Museum of Art, Japan, 2002

NILS-UDO, Towards Nature with contributions by Katsunari Sasaki, Yuri Matsushita, Wolfgang Becker, Nils-Udo,  Gunma Museum of Art, Tatebayashi, Hokkaido Obihiro Museum of Art, Iwate Museum of Art,  Kyodo News, Tokyo 2002

NILS-UDO, Art in Nature with contributions by Hubert Besacier, Nils-Udo, Flammarion, Paris 2002

NILS-UDO, l`Art dans la Nature with contributions by Hubert Besacier, Nils-Udo, Flammarion Paris 2002

NILS-UDO, Arte nella natura with contributions by Vittorio Fagone, Accademia Carrara Bergamo, Galeria d`Arte Moderna e Contemporanea  2000

NILS-UDO, Auf den Spuren der Wirklichkeit, with contributions by Heike Strelow, Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Genève 2000

NILS-UDO, Art in Nature with contributions by Wolfgang Becker, Régis Durand, John K. Grande, Vittorio Fagone, Wienand Verlag Köln 1999

NILS-UDO, De l`art avec la nature with contributions by Wolfgang Becker, Régis Durand, John K. Grande, Vittorio Fagone,  Wienand Verlag Köln 1999

NILS-UDO, Kunst mit Natur with contributions by Wolfgang Becker, Régis Durand, John K. Grande, Vittorio Fagone,  Wienand Verlag Köln 1999

NILS-UDO A fleur de vie, with contributions by Philippe Piguet, Nils-Udo, Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Genève 1998

NILS-UDO, New Delhi 1994  with contributions by Georg Lechner, Nils-Udo, in Zusammenarbeit mit Max Mueller-Bhavan, New Delhi 1997

NILS-UDO, Le maïs with contributions by Régis Durand, Éditions Aubéron, Bordeaux 1994

NILS-UDO, Deux saisons with contributions by Régis Durand, Marc Sautivet, Vassivière en Limousin, Centre Impression, Limoges 1987

NILS-UDO with contributions by Jürgen Morschel, Hubert Besacier, Musée St. Pierre, Art contemporain, Lyon 1984